Uretroplastia en el tratamiento de la estrechez y la estenosis uretrales

Palabras clave: Uretra, estrechez uretral, estenosis uretral, uretroplastia

Resumen

Descripción resumida del tema: La patología de la luz uretral se desarrolla debido al proceso de cicatrización y fibrosis de la mucosa uretral y/o de los tejidos adyacentes, desencadenando funcionalmente obstrucción del tracto urinario inferior generando alteración de la micción con un eventual deterioro del tracto urinario y un impacto directo en la calidad de vida.

Relevancia: La estenosis y la estrechez uretral afectan, de manera importante, la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Con un adecuado enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico son quirúrgicamente curables. El planteamiento terapéutico dependerá de múltiples factores relacionados con la edad del paciente, las comorbilidades, la etiología, nivel y extensión de la enfermedad.

Las opciones terapéuticas se dividen en tratamiento paliativo y curativo contemplando en este grupo técnicas mínimamente invasivas y las cirugías reconstructivas como lo son la uretroplastia término-terminal, con injerto genital o extragenital, y con colgajo de tejido genital.

Conclusión: Cada técnica quirúrgica de reconstrucción uretral tiene un campo preciso de aplicación con resultados aceptables. Sin embargo, la literatura disponible sobre uretroplastía tiene bajos niveles de evidencia, predominando series de casos y la opinión de expertos.

Citas

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Publicado
2021-03-05
Sección
Artículos de revisión