Riesgos y daños en la salud mental del personal sanitario por la atención a pacientes con COVID-19.

Palabras clave: Salud mental, personal de la salud, COVID-19/salud mental, cuidado personal, COVID-19

Resumen

Descripción: Revisión bibliográfica sobre impacto en salud mental del personal sanitario por las condiciones hospitalarias, factores de riesgo y dilemas éticos y morales provocados por la atención de pacientes durante la pandemia COVID-19.

Relevancia: Prevención y detección de riesgos y daños en la salud mental del personal sanitario, al identificar variables que incrementan la carga emocional por la atención a pacientes con COVID-19.

Conclusiones: El personal sanitario puede experimentar ansiedad intensa, incertidumbre, pérdidas de rutinas y tradiciones, estrés, fatiga por compasión, así como daño moral, quedando propensos a desencadenar alteraciones mentales como depresión, trastorno de estrés postraumático e incluso ideación suicida. Es prioritario detectar comportamientos indicativos de alteraciones en la salud mental para mitigar sus efectos, implementando estrategias con alto grado de calidad y apoyo que propicien crecimiento postraumático. Superada la pandemia, es recomendable monitorear a corto, mediano y largo plazo al personal de salud, para identificar y tratar adecuadamente el daño moral o alteración mental resultantes, ayudándoles a recuperar su confianza y seguridad antes tan natural, en el trato de sus pacientes.

Citas

World Health Organization. COVID-19 situation reports. 2020. [accessed 28 May 2020] Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports

Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA. 2020 Apr 7;323(13):1239. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.2648

Garg S. Hospitalization Rates and Characteristics of Patients Hospitalized with Laboratory-Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 — COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1–30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69. [accessed 28 May 2020] Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6915e3.htm

Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai Z, Hu J, Wei N, et al. Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Mar 23;3(3):e203976. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976

Gallagher TH, Schleyer AM. “We Signed Up for This!” — Student and Trainee Responses to the Covid-19 Pandemic. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 8;NEJMp2005234. doi: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmp2005234

Greenberg N, Docherty M, Gnanapragasam S, Wessely S. Managing mental health challenges faced by healthcare workers during covid-19 pandemic. BMJ. 2020 Mar 26;368. [accessed 28 May 2020] Available from: https://www.bmj.com/content/368/bmj.m1211

Williamson V, Stevelink SAM, Greenberg N. Occupational moral injury and mental health: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2018 Jun;212(6):339–46. doi: https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2018.55

Brooks S, Amlôt R, Rubin GJ, Greenberg N. Psychological resilience and post-traumatic growth in disaster-exposed organisations: overview of the literature. BMJ Mil Health. 2020 Feb 1;166(1):52–6. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jramc-2017-000876

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Preventing and Managing Stress | Publications and Digital Products. 2014. [accessed 28 May 2020] Available from: https://store.samhsa.gov/product/Preventing-and-Managing-Stress/SMA14-4873

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Coping with Stress During Infectious Disease Outbreaks | Publications and Digital Products. 2014. [accessed 28 May 2020] Available from: https://store.samhsa.gov/product/Coping-with-Stress-During-Infectious-Disease-Outbreaks/sma14-4885

Fessell D, Cherniss C. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Beyond: Micropractices for Burnout Prevention and Emotional Wellness. Journal of the American College of Radiology. 2020 Mar;S1546144020302908. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2020.03.013

Hopper SI, Murray SL, Ferrara LR, Singleton JK. Effectiveness of diaphragmatic breathing for reducing physiological and psychological stress in adults: a quantitative systematic review. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports. 2019 Sep;17(9):1855–76. doi: https://doi.org/10.11124/jbisrir-2017-003848

Flanagan E, Chadwick R, Goodrich J, Ford C, Wickens R. Reflection for all healthcare staff: A national evaluation of Schwartz Rounds. Journal of Interprofessional Care. 2020 Jan 2;34(1):140–2. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820.2019.1636008

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Overview | Post-traumatic stress disorder | Guidance | NICE. 2018. [accessed 28 May 2020] Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng116

Publicado
2020-06-01
Sección
Artículos de revisión