Virus del papiloma humano (VPH): microbiología, relación con el cáncer de pene y características de la vacuna

  • Javier Eduardo Rengifo-Rodríguez Universidad del Valle, Grupo de investigación UROGIV
  • Julio César Osorio Universidad del Valle, Grupo de investigación UROGIV. UNICOC.
  • Herney Andrés García-Perdomo Universidad del Valle, Grupo de investigación UROGIV https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6945-8261
Palabras clave: Virus de papiloma humano, cáncer de pene, vacuna, carcinogénesis

Resumen

El Virus del Papiloma Humano (VPH) ha sido en las últimas 2 décadas un objeto importante de estudio por su relación causal en el cáncer de cérvix y su asociación como factor de riesgo en neoplasias anogenitales, en especial el cáncer de pene (CaPe).

El estudio molecular del VPH y la identificación de proteínas esenciales ha permitido el desarrollo de la vacuna. Además, se identifica una relación epidemiológica clara entre el VPH y el CaPe. En el aspecto molecular de esta relación, es clara la alteración de la vía del P16 celular por las oncoproteínas del virus, aunque se cree que no es el único mecanismo de patogenia. En cuanto a la vacuna, se sugiere efectividad en la prevención contra infección del VPH en hombres, aunque no hay evidencia suficiente para aseverar la protección contra CaPe.

Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, se abre una brecha de investigación, tanto en el área clínica, para tratar de establecer la efectividad-eficacia de la vacuna en la prevención CaPe, como el de la biología molecular en el estudio de los mecanismos moleculares en la patogenia de esta neoplasia.         

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Publicado
2020-08-11
Sección
Artículos de revisión